Surrealism, An Overview

Surrealism is a movement in art and intellectual activities which emerged after World War I. 

Andre Breton, was the founder of the surrealistic concepts and he gathered the influence from the Dande movement. Surrealism is really the genuine articulation of mental feelings, with no polishing.

Surrealism is the standards or beliefs with regards to delivering awesome symbolism or impacts in arts, film, theatre or writing by methods of irrational/unnatural contrasts and combinations.

Surrealistic artistic expressions distinctively vary from the traditional structures in the sense that it does not have a particular shape or thought. It is the outflow of fundamental human intuition and innovative resources of the unconscious mind.

World War I unveiled human beings at their darkest potential, capable of brutality toward others, surrounded by mass political upheaval. Pleasant humanist notions regarding human identity diminished as a new intellectual movement known as Surrealism emerged in Paris and spread across Europe out of the ashes of the First World War. As Surrealists responded to this disillusioning time, they became inspired by Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis, and regarded the unconscious as the primary determinant of human identity. As a result, the Surrealists produced works that defied all rational boundaries not only to represent their own unconscious desires, but on a wider spectrum, the irrational nature of humanity.

The artistic development of surrealism began amid the 1920's, at the beginning of the second World War and around the period when Dadaism and cubism as a dynamic movement was diminishing, the most important centre of the movement was Paris. Beginning from the 1920's, the movement spread throughout the globe, thus, influencing the visual arts, film, music and literature of numerous nations and dialects, and also influencing political idea and practice, reasoning, and social theory.

Andre Breton was heavily influenced by the embryonic field of psychology and believed that personal freedom and social liberation lay in the unconscious mind. He drew influence of methods in art that attempted to achieve this; from the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch and James Ensor and from the writings of Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud. Alfred Jarry and from the political posturing of Karl Marx.

It's principal aim was to merge the contradictory notions of dream and reality into an absolute reality - super reality. It's members viewed the movement as a philosophy, even a religion in it's aims and practices.

In 1925, the principal presentation of Surrealist arts was carried-out in Paris at Gallerie Pierre. The presentation included works by popular specialists Man Ray, Masson, Klee Miro and lots more. This show was imperative since it reinforced the status of Surrealism as a substantial form of Visual arts. Surrealism has such an incredible effect on the arts world that it didn't just influence the painted form, yet seeped out and discovered its way into theatre, films, poetry and others.

The thing is there was no dominant painting style in Surrealism, though there were tendencies. These tendencies included discovering imagery by chance, tampering with the vision, using techniques such as frottage (rubbing), grattage (scraping) and fumage (smoking). A second tendency, called Veristic Surrealism was the depiction of dreams. A third tendency was automatic panting, where the artist allowed his instrument to rove the canvas without rationally thinking what he was doing.

For Breton and other Surrealists, this style of life and art represented freedom from moral, aesthetic and rational constraints. In contrast with Freud's curative efforts, Breton and his group saw neurosis as a desirable state of permanent dreams. The Surrealists believed that by casting off the logical view of reality, the boundary between the inner self and the outer self could be dissolved.

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